Actoplus Met

Name: Actoplus Met

Metformin Pioglitazone Side Effects

Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking metformin. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, fast or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • shortness of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;
  • pink or red urine, painful or difficult urination, urinating more than usual;
  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding;
  • nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes); or
  • changes in your vision.

Common side effects may include:

  • headache;
  • diarrhea; or
  • cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sinus pain, sneezing, sore throat.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Metformin and pioglitazone side effects

Some people develop lactic acidosis while taking metformin. Early symptoms may get worse over time and this condition can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, fast or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • shortness of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;

  • pink or red urine, painful or difficult urination, new or worsening urge to urinate;

  • pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding;

  • nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes); or

  • changes in your vision.

Common side effects may include:

  • headache;

  • diarrhea; or

  • cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sinus pain, sneezing, sore throat.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Precautions While Using Actoplus Met

It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to use it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

If you are rapidly gaining weight, having shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort, extreme tiredness or weakness, irregular breathing, irregular heartbeat, or excessive swelling of the hands, wrist, ankles, or feet, check with your doctor immediately. These may be symptoms of heart problems or fluid retention (too much water in the body).

Let your doctor or dentist know you are taking this medicine. Your doctor may advise you to stop taking this medicine before you have major surgery or diagnostic tests, especially tests that use a contrast dye.

Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and appear quickly. Lactic acidosis usually occurs when other serious health problems are present, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. The symptoms of lactic acidosis include: abdominal or stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fast or shallow breathing, a general feeling of discomfort, muscle pain or cramping, and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If you have more than one of these symptoms together, you should get immediate emergency medical help.

Check with your doctor right away if you have pain or tenderness in the upper stomach, pale stools, dark urine, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or yellow eyes or skin. These could be symptoms of a serious liver problem.

Check with your doctor right away if blurred vision, decreased vision, or any other change in vision occurs while you are taking this medicine. Your doctor may want you to have your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

This medicine may increase the risk for bone fractures in women. Ask your doctor about ways to keep your bones strong to help prevent fractures.

This medicine may increase your risk for bladder cancer if you take it for more than 12 months. Tell your doctor right away if you have blood in the urine, a frequent, strong, or increased urge to urinate, painful urination, or pain in the back, lower abdomen, or stomach.

This medicine can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Low blood sugar can also occur if you delay or miss a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, drink alcohol, or cannot eat because of nausea or vomiting or take certain medicines. Low blood sugar must be treated before it causes you to pass out (unconsciousness). People feel different symptoms with low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms you have in order to treat it quickly. Talk to your doctor about the best way to treat low blood sugar.

Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) may occur if you do not take enough or skip a dose of your medicine, overeat or do not follow your meal plan, have a fever or infection, or do not exercise as much as usual. High blood sugar can be very serious and must be treated right away. It is important that you learn which symptoms you have in order to treat it quickly. Talk to your doctor about the best way to treat high blood sugar.

There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says you have diabetes with a list of all your medicines.

This medicine may cause some women who do not have regular monthly periods to ovulate. This can increase the chance of pregnancy. If you are a woman of childbearing potential, you should discuss birth control options with your doctor.

Limit how much alcohol you drink while using this medicine. Heavy alcohol use can increase your risk for lactic acidosis.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Actoplus Met Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

More common
  • Bladder pain
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • difficult, burning, or painful urination
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • lower back or side pain
  • swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs
  • weight gain
Less common
  • Pain or swelling in the arms or legs without any injury
  • pale skin
  • troubled breathing with exertion
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
Rare
  • Abdominal or stomach discomfort
  • anxiety
  • blurred vision
  • chills
  • cold sweats
  • coma
  • confusion
  • cool, pale skin
  • decreased appetite
  • depression
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • fast heartbeat
  • fast, shallow breathing
  • general feeling of discomfort
  • headache
  • increased hunger
  • muscle pain or cramping
  • nausea
  • nightmares
  • seizures
  • shakiness
  • sleepiness
  • slurred speech

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Body aches or pain
  • cough
  • ear congestion
  • fever, sneezing, or sore throat
  • loss of voice
  • runny nose
  • stuffy nose

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Overdosage

Pioglitazone

During controlled clinical trials, one case of overdose with pioglitazone was reported. A male patient took 120 mg per day for four days, then 180 mg per day for seven days. The patient denied any clinical symptoms during this period.

In the event of overdosage, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient's clinical signs and symptoms.

Metformin hydrochloride

Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin hydrochloride has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated metformin from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.

Actoplus Met - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Actoplus Met combines two antidiabetic medications with different mechanisms of action to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes: pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, and metformin hydrochloride, a biguanide. Thiazolidinediones are insulin-sensitizing agents that act primarily by enhancing peripheral glucose utilization, whereas biguanides act primarily by decreasing endogenous hepatic glucose production.

Pioglitazone

Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione that depends on the presence of insulin for its mechanism of action. Pioglitazone decreases insulin resistance in the periphery and in the liver resulting in increased insulin-dependent glucose disposal and decreased hepatic glucose output. Pioglitazone is not an insulin secretagogue. Pioglitazone is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). PPAR receptors are found in tissues important for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPARγ nuclear receptors modulates the transcription of a number of insulin responsive genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism.

In animal models of diabetes, pioglitazone reduces the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia characteristic of insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes. The metabolic changes produced by pioglitazone result in increased responsiveness of insulin-dependent tissues and are observed in numerous animal models of insulin resistance.

Because pioglitazone enhances the effects of circulating insulin (by decreasing insulin resistance), it does not lower blood glucose in animal models that lack endogenous insulin.

Metformin hydrochloride

Metformin hydrochloride improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or healthy subjects [except in specific circumstances, see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease.

Pharmacodynamics

Pioglitazone

Clinical studies demonstrate that pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant patients. Pioglitazone enhances cellular responsiveness to insulin, increases insulin-dependent glucose disposal and improves hepatic sensitivity to insulin. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the decreased insulin resistance produced by pioglitazone results in lower plasma glucose concentrations, lower plasma insulin concentrations, and lower HbA1c values. In controlled clinical trials, pioglitazone had an additive effect on glycemic control when used in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin [see Clinical Studies (14)].

Patients with lipid abnormalities were included in clinical trials with pioglitazone. Overall, patients treated with pioglitazone had mean decreases in serum triglycerides, mean increases in HDL cholesterol, and no consistent mean changes in LDL and total cholesterol. There is no conclusive evidence of macrovascular benefit with pioglitazone or any other antidiabetic medication [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

In a 26-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging monotherapy study, mean serum triglycerides decreased in the 15-mg, 30-mg, and 45-mg pioglitazone dose groups compared to a mean increase in the placebo group. Mean HDL cholesterol increased to a greater extent in patients treated with pioglitazone than in the placebo-treated patients. There were no consistent differences for LDL and total cholesterol in patients treated with pioglitazone compared to placebo (see Table 16).

* Adjusted for baseline, pooled center, and pooled center by treatment interaction † p <0.05 versus placebo

Table 16. Lipids in a 26-Week Placebo-Controlled Monotherapy Dose-Ranging Study

Placebo

Pioglitazone
15 mg
Once Daily

Pioglitazone
30 mg
Once Daily

Pioglitazone
45 mg
Once Daily

Triglycerides (mg/dL)

N=79

N=79

N=84

N=77

Baseline (mean)

263

284

261

260

Percent change from baseline (adjusted mean*)

4.8%

-9.0%†

-9.6%†

-9.3%†

HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL)

N=79

N=79

N=83

N=77

Baseline (mean)

42

40

41

41

Percent change from baseline (adjusted mean*)

8.1%

14.1%†

12.2%

19.1%†

LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL)

N=65

N=63

N=74

N=62

Baseline (mean)

139

132

136

127

Percent change from baseline (adjusted mean*)

4.8%

7.2%

5.2%

6.0%

Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)

N=79

N=79

N=84

N=77

Baseline (mean)

225

220

223

214

Percent change from baseline (adjusted mean*)

4.4%

4.6%

3.3%

6.4%

In the two other monotherapy studies (16 weeks and 24 weeks) and in combination therapy studies with metformin (16 weeks and 24 weeks), the results were generally consistent with the data above.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Actoplus Met

In bioequivalence studies of Actoplus Met 15 mg/500 mg and 15 mg/850 mg, the area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) of both the pioglitazone and the metformin component following a single dose of the combination tablet were bioequivalent to ACTOS 15 mg concomitantly administered with Glucophage (500 mg or 850 mg respectively) tablets under fasted conditions in healthy subjects.

Administration of Actoplus Met 15 mg/850 mg with food resulted in no change in overall exposure of pioglitazone. With metformin there was no change in AUC; however, mean peak serum concentration of metformin was decreased by 28% when administered with food. A delayed time to peak serum concentration was observed for both components (1.9 hours for pioglitazone and 0.8 hours for metformin) under fed conditions. These changes are not likely to be clinically significant.

Pioglitazone

Following once-daily administration of pioglitazone, steady-state serum concentrations of both pioglitazone and its major active metabolites, M-III (keto derivative of pioglitazone) and M-IV (hydroxyl derivative of pioglitazone), are achieved within seven days. At steady-state, M-III and M-IV reach serum concentrations equal to or greater than that of pioglitazone. At steady-state, in both healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone comprises approximately 30% to 50% of the peak total pioglitazone serum concentrations (pioglitazone plus active metabolites) and 20% to 25% of the total AUC.

Cmax, AUC, and trough serum concentrations (Cmin) for pioglitazone and M-III and M-IV, increased proportionally with administered doses of 15 mg and 30 mg per day.

Following oral administration of pioglitazone, Tmax of pioglitazone was within two hours. Food delays the Tmax to three to four hours, but does not alter the extent of absorption (AUC).

Metformin hydrochloride

The absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg metformin tablet given under fasting conditions is approximately 50% - 60%. Studies using single oral doses of metformin tablets of 500 mg to 1500 mg, and 850 mg to 2550 mg, indicate that there is a lack of dose proportionality with increasing doses, which is due to decreased absorption rather than an alteration in elimination. At usual clinical doses and dosing schedules of metformin, steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin are reached within 24 to 48 hours and are generally <1 mcg/mL. During controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin plasma levels did not exceed 5 mcg/mL, even at maximum doses.

Food decreases the rate and extent of metformin absorption, as shown by a 40% lower mean Cmax, a 25% lower AUC, and a 35-minute prolongation of Tmax following administration of a single 850 mg tablet of metformin with food, compared to the same tablet strength administered fasting. The clinical relevance of these decreases is unknown.

Distribution

Pioglitazone

The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) of pioglitazone following single-dose administration is 0.63 ± 0.41 (mean ± SD) L/kg of body weight. Pioglitazone is extensively protein bound (>99%) in human serum, principally to serum albumin. Pioglitazone also binds to other serum proteins, but with lower affinity. M-III and M-IV are also extensively bound (>98%) to serum albumin.

Metformin hydrochloride

The Vd/F of metformin following single oral doses of 850 mg immediate-release metformin averaged 654 ± 358 L. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes, most likely as a function of time.

Metabolism

Pioglitazone

Pioglitazone is extensively metabolized by hydroxylation and oxidation; the metabolites also partly convert to glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Metabolites M-III and M-IV are the major circulating active metabolites in humans.

In vitro data demonstrate that multiple CYP isoforms are involved in the metabolism of pioglitazone which include CYP2C8 and, to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 with additional contributions from a variety of other isoforms, including the mainly extrahepatic CYP1A1. In vivo study of pioglitazone in combination with gemfibrozil, a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor, showed that pioglitazone is a CYP2C8 substrate [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Urinary 6ß-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured in patients treated with pioglitazone showed that pioglitazone is not a strong CYP3A4 enzyme inducer.

Metformin hydrochloride

Intravenous single-dose studies in healthy subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion.

Excretion and Elimination

Pioglitazone

Following oral administration, approximately 15% to 30% of the pioglitazone dose is recovered in the urine. Renal elimination of pioglitazone is negligible and the drug is excreted primarily as metabolites and their conjugates. It is presumed that most of the oral dose is excreted into the bile either unchanged or as metabolites and eliminated in the feces.

The mean serum half-life (t½) of pioglitazone and its metabolites (M-III and M-IV) range from three to seven hours and 16 to 24 hours, respectively. Pioglitazone has an apparent clearance, CL/F, calculated to be five to seven L/hr.

Metformin hydrochloride

Renal clearance is approximately 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance (CLcr), which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination t½ of approximately 6.2 hours. In blood, the elimination t½ is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution.

Specific Populations

Renal Impairment

Pioglitazone

The serum elimination half-life of pioglitazone, M-III and M-IV remains unchanged in patients with moderate (CLcr 30 to 50 mL/min) and severe (CLcr <30 mL/min) renal impairment when compared to subjects with normal renal function. Therefore, no dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment is required.

Metformin hydrochloride

In patients with decreased renal function (based on eGFR), the plasma and blood t1/2 of metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased in proportion to the decrease in eGFR [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Hepatic Impairment

Pioglitazone

Compared with healthy controls, subjects with impaired hepatic function (Child-Turcotte-Pugh Grade B/C) have an approximate 45% reduction in pioglitazone and total pioglitazone (pioglitazone, M-III, and M-IV) mean Cmax but no change in the mean AUC values. Therefore, no dose adjustment in patients with hepatic impairment is required.

There are postmarketing reports of liver failure with pioglitazone and clinical trials have generally excluded patients with serum ALT >2.5 times the upper limit of the reference range. Use Actoplus Met with caution in patients with liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Metformin hydrochloride

No pharmacokinetic studies of metformin have been conducted in subjects with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Geriatric Patients

Pioglitazone

In healthy elderly subjects, Cmax of pioglitazone was not significantly different, but AUC values were approximately 21% higher than those achieved in younger subjects. The mean t½ of pioglitazone was also prolonged in elderly subjects (about ten hours) as compared to younger subjects (about seven hours). These changes were not of a magnitude that would be considered clinically relevant.

Metformin hydrochloride

Limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of metformin in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total CL/F is decreased, the t½ is prolonged, and Cmax is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. From these data, it appears that the change in metformin pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function.

Pediatrics

Pioglitazone

Safety and efficacy of pioglitazone in pediatric patients have not been established. Actoplus Met is not recommended for use in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Metformin hydrochloride

After administration of a single oral metformin 500 mg tablet with food, geometric mean metformin Cmax and AUC differed less than 5% between pediatric type 2 diabetic patients (12 to 16 years of age) and gender- and weight-matched healthy adults (20 to 45 years of age), and all with normal renal function.

Gender

Pioglitazone

The mean Cmax and AUC values of pioglitazone were increased 20% to 60% in women compared to men. In controlled clinical trials, HbA1c decreases from baseline were generally greater for females than for males (average mean difference in HbA1c 0.5%). Because therapy should be individualized for each patient to achieve glycemic control, no dose adjustment is recommended based on gender alone.

Metformin hydrochloride

Metformin pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly between normal subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes when analyzed according to gender (males=19, females=16). Similarly, in controlled clinical studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin was comparable in males and females.

Ethnicity

Pioglitazone

Pharmacokinetic data among various ethnic groups are not available.

Metformin hydrochloride

No studies of metformin pharmacokinetic parameters according to race have been performed. In controlled clinical studies of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect was comparable in whites (n=249), blacks (n=51), and Hispanics (n=24).

Drug-Drug Interactions

Specific pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies with Actoplus Met have not been performed, although such studies have been conducted with the individual pioglitazone and metformin components.

Pioglitazone

* Daily for 7 days unless otherwise noted † % change (with/without coadministered drug and no change = 0%); symbols of ↑ and ↓ indicate the exposure increase and decrease, respectively ‡ Pioglitazone had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time

Table 17. Effect of Pioglitazone Coadministration on Systemic Exposure of Other Drugs

Coadministered Drug

Pioglitazone Dosage
Regimen (mg)*

Name and Dose Regimens

Change in AUC†

Change in Cmax†

45 mg
(N = 12)

Warfarin‡

Daily loading then maintenance doses
based PT and INR values
Quick's Value = 35 ± 5%

R-Warfarin

↓3%

R-Warfarin

↓2%

S-Warfarin

↓1%

S-Warfarin

↑1%

45 mg
(N = 12)

Digoxin

0.200 mg twice daily (loading dose) then 0.250 mg daily (maintenance dose, 7 days)

↑15%

↑17%

45 mg daily for 21 days
(N = 35)

Oral Contraceptive

[Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) 0.035 mg plus
Norethindrone (NE) 1 mg] for 21 days

EE

↓11%

EE

↓13%

NE

↑3%

NE

↓7%

45 mg
(N = 23)

Fexofenadine

60 mg twice daily for 7 days

↑30%

↑37%

45 mg
(N = 14)

Glipizide

5 mg daily for 7 days

↓3%

↓8%

45 mg daily for 8 days
(N = 16)

Metformin

1000 mg single dose on Day 8

↓3%

↓5%

45 mg
(N = 21)

Midazolam

7.5 mg single dose on Day 15

↓26%

↓26%

45 mg
(N = 24)

Ranitidine

150 mg twice daily for 7 days

↑1%

↓1%

45 mg daily for 4 days
(N = 24)

Nifedipine ER

30 mg daily for 4 days

↓13%

↓17%

45 mg
(N = 25)

Atorvastatin Ca

80 mg daily for 7 days

↓14%

↓23%

45 mg
(N = 22)

Theophylline

400 mg twice daily for 7 days

↑2%

↑5%

* Daily for 7 days unless otherwise noted † Mean ratio (with/without coadministered drug and no change = 1-fold) % change (with/without coadministered drug and no change = 0%); symbols of ↑ and ↓ indicate the exposure increase and decrease, respectively ‡ The half-life of pioglitazone increased from 8.3 hours to 22.7 hours in the presence of gemfibrozil [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]

Table 18. Effect of Coadministered Drugs on Pioglitazone Systemic Exposure

Coadministered Drug and Dosage Regimen

Pioglitazone

Dose Regimen
(mg)*

Change in AUC†

Change in Cmax†

Gemfibrozil 600 mg
twice daily for 2 days
(N = 12)

15-mg
single dose

↑3.2-fold‡

↑6%

Ketoconazole 200 mg
twice daily for 7 days
(N = 28)

45 mg

↑34%

↑14%

Rifampin 600 mg
daily for 5 days
(N = 10)

30-mg
single dose

↓54%

↓5%

Fexofenadine 60 mg
twice daily for 7 days
(N = 23)

45 mg

↑1%

0%

Ranitidine 150 mg
twice daily for 4 days
(N = 23)

45 mg

↓13%

↓16%

Nifedipine ER 30 mg
daily for 7 days
(N = 23)

45 mg

↑5%

↑4%

Atorvastatin Ca 80 mg
daily for 7 days
(N = 24)

45 mg

↓24%

↓31%

Theophylline 400 mg
twice daily for 7 days
(N = 22)

45 mg

↓4%

↓2%

Metformin hydrochloride

* All metformin and coadministered drugs were given as single doses † AUC = AUC0–∞ ‡ Metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, 500 mg § Ratio of arithmetic means ¶ At steady-state with topiramate 100 mg every 12 hours and metformin 500 mg every 12 hours; AUC = AUC0-12h

Table 19. Effect of Coadministered Drug on Plasma Metformin Systemic Exposure

Coadministered Drug

Dose of Coadministered Drug*

Dose of Metformin*

Geometric Mean Ratio
(ratio with/without coadministered drug)
No effect = 1.00

AUC†

Cmax

No dosing adjustments required for the following:

Glyburide

5 mg

500 mg‡

0.98§

0.99§

Furosemide

40 mg

850 mg

1.09§

1.22§

Nifedipine

10 mg

850 mg

1.16

1.21

Propranolol

40 mg

850 mg

0.90

0.94

Ibuprofen

400 mg

850 mg

1.05§

1.07§

Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion may increase the accumulation of metformin [see Warnings and Precautions (5) and Drug Interactions (7)].

Cimetidine

400 mg

850 mg

1.40

1.61

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may cause metabolic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5) and Drug Interactions (7)].

Topiramate

100 mg¶

500 mg¶

1.25¶

1.17

* All metformin and coadministered drugs were given as single doses † AUC = AUC0–∞ ‡ AUC0-24 hr reported § Ratio of arithmetic means, p-value of difference <0.05 ¶ Ratio of arithmetic means

Table 20. Effect of Metformin on Coadministered Drug Systemic Exposure

Coadministered Drug

Dose of Coadministered Drug*

Dose of Metformin*

Geometric Mean Ratio
(ratio with/without coadministered drug)
No effect = 1.00

AUC†

Cmax

No dosing adjustments required for the following:

Glyburide

5 mg

500 mg‡

0.78§

0.63§

Furosemide

40 mg

850 mg

0.87§

0.69§

Nifedipine

10 mg

850 mg

1.10‡

1.08

Propranolol

40 mg

850 mg

1.01‡

0.94

Ibuprofen

400 mg

850 mg

0.97¶

1.01¶

Cimetidine

400 mg

850 mg

0.95‡

1.01

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Actoplus Met

No animal studies have been conducted with Actoplus Met. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with pioglitazone or metformin individually.

Pioglitazone

A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female rats at oral doses up to 63 mg/kg (approximately 14 times the maximum recommended human oral dose of 45 mg based on mg/m2). Drug-induced tumors were not observed in any organ except for the urinary bladder of male rats. Benign and/or malignant transitional cell neoplasms were observed in male rats at 4 mg/kg/day and above (approximately equal to the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2). Urinary calculi with subsequent irritation and hyperplasia were postulated as the mechanism for bladder tumors observed in male rats. A two-year mechanistic study in male rats utilizing dietary acidification to reduce calculi formation was completed in 2009. Dietary acidification decreased but did not abolish the hyperplastic changes in the bladder. The presence of calculi exacerbated the hyperplastic response to pioglitazone but was not considered the primary cause of the hyperplastic changes.

The relevance to humans of the bladder findings in the male rat cannot be excluded.

A two-year carcinogenicity study was also conducted in male and female mice at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 11 times the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2). No drug-induced tumors were observed in any organ.

Pioglitazone hydrochloride was not mutagenic in a battery of genetic toxicology studies, including the Ames bacterial assay, a mammalian cell forward gene mutation assay (CHO/HPRT and AS52/XPRT), an in vitro cytogenetics assay using CHL cells, an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and an in vivo micronucleus assay.

No adverse effects upon fertility were observed in male and female rats at oral doses up to 40 mg/kg pioglitazone hydrochloride daily prior to and throughout mating and gestation (approximately nine times the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2).

Metformin hydrochloride

Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately four times a human daily dose of 2000 mg of the metformin component of Actoplus Met based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day.

There was no evidence of mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative.

Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately three times the maximum recommended human daily dose of the metformin component of Actoplus Met based on body surface area comparisons.

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Heart enlargement has been observed in mice (100 mg/kg), rats (4 mg/kg and above) and dogs (3 mg/kg) treated orally with pioglitazone hydrochloride (approximately 11, one, and two times the maximum recommended human oral dose for mice, rats, and dogs, respectively, based on mg/m2). In a one-year rat study, drug-related early death due to apparent heart dysfunction occurred at an oral dose of 160 mg/kg/day (approximately 35 times the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2). Heart enlargement was seen in a 13-week study in monkeys at oral doses of 8.9 mg/kg and above (approximately four times the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2), but not in a 52-week study at oral doses up to 32 mg/kg (approximately 13 times the maximum recommended human oral dose based on mg/m2).

Manufacturer

  • Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.

Actoplus Met FDA Warning

WARNING: CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE AND LACTIC ACIDOSIS

Congestive Heart Failure

Thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, which is a component of ACTOPLUS MET, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients.

After initiation of ACTOPLUS MET, and after dose increases, monitor patients carefully for signs and symptoms of heart failure (e.g., excessive, rapid weight gain, dyspnea, and/or edema). If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care and discontinuation or dose reduction of ACTOPLUS MET must be considered.

ACTOPLUS MET is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure.

Initiation of ACTOPLUS MET in patients with established New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated.

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation. The risk increases with conditions such as sepsis, dehydration, excess alcohol intake, hepatic impairment, renal impairment, and acute congestive heart failure.

The onset is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. Laboratory abnormalities include low pH, increased anion gap, and elevated blood lactate.

If acidosis is suspected, ACTOPLUS MET should be discontinued and the patient hospitalized immediately.

Warnings

Black Box Warnings

Discontinue metformin at the time of or before an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30-60 mL/minute/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinate contrast

Congestive heart failure

  • Thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients
  • Monitor carefully after initiation or dose increases for signs and symptoms of heart failure (including excessive, rapid weight gain; dyspnea; and/or edema); if these signs or symptoms develop, manage heart failure according current standards of care; consider discontinuing or reducing dose
  • Not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure; initiation of these drugs in patients with established NYHA class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated

Lactic acidosis

  • Characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L)
  • Rare but serious complication that can occur because of metformin accumulation; increased risk with sepsis, dehydration, excess alcohol intake, hepatic insufficiency, renal impairment, and acute congestive heart failure
  • Subtle onset with nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, nonspecific abdominal distress)
  • Monitor lab for decreased serum pH, increased anion gap, and elevated blood lactate If suspected, discontinue drug and hospitalize patient immediately
  • Metformin is highly dialyzable (clearance up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions); prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and to remove accumulated metformin

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity

Severe renal disease: eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m²

Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including DKA with or without coma

NYHA Class III or IV heart failure

Cautions

Temporarily discontinue in patients undergoing radiologic exams using iodinated contrast agents

Do not initiate in patients aged ≥80 years CrCl demonstrates that renal function is not reduced because these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis

Withhold metformin in presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis

Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia); lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting

Pioglitazone may cause fluid retention and cause or exacerbate existing heart failure

Edema; thiazolidinediones, which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin

Pioglitazone exerts its antihyperglycemic effect only in presence of insulin; therefore, do not use in type 1 diabetes mellitus or for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis

May cause hypoglycemia; patients receiving therapy in combination with insulin or other antidiabetic medications (particularly insulin secretagogues such as sulfonylureas) may be at risk for hypoglycemia; a reduction in dose of the concomitant antidiabetic medication may be necessary to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia; hypoglycemia can also occur when caloric intake is deficient or when strenuous be necessary to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia exercise is not compensated by caloric supplement; hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly, and in people who are taking beta-adrenergic blocking drugs

Rare reports of hepatitis and hepatic enzyme elevations to >3 xULN, including very rare incidences of hepatic failure with and without fatal outcome

In controlled clinical trials of metformin, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, reported; certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels; in these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at two- to three-year intervals may be useful

Metformin is substantially excreted by kidney, and risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with degree of renal impairment

Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis; therapy is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment

Discuss potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin/pioglitazone, may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women

Drug interactions review

  • Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis; concomitant use of these drugs with metformin/pioglitazone combination may increase risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring of these patients
  • Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., cationic drugs such as cimetidine) have potential for interaction with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems, and may increase accumulation of metformin and risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring of these patients
  • Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism; warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving therapy
  • If hypoglycemia occurs in a patient coadministered pioglitazone/metformin and an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea), the dose of insulin secretagogue should be reduced; if hypoglycemia occurs in a patient coadministered and insulin, the dose of insulin should be decreased by 10% to 25%; further adjustments to insulin dose should be individualized based on glycemic response

Iodinated contrast imaging procedures

  • Discontinue metformin at the time of or before an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30-60 mL/minute/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinate contrast
  • Reevaluate eGFR 48 hr after the imaging procedure; restart metformin if renal function is stable

Cancer risk

  • Bladder cancer
    • Pioglitazone may be linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer
    • Do not prescribe for patients with active bladder cancer
    • Consider benefit:risk ratio before prescribing in patients with a history of bladder cancer
    • Instruct patients to contact their physician if signs of bladder cancer observed after initiating therapy (eg, blood or red colored urine, new or worsening urinary urgency, pain on urination)
  • Prostate cancer
    • 7/22/2015: Compared with nonuse, pioglitazone use was associated with increased risk for prostate cancer (453.3 vs. 449.3 per 100,000 person-years) [JAMA 2015 July 21;314(3):265-277]
  • Pancreatic cancer
    • 7/22/2015: Compared with nonuse, pioglitazone use was associated with increased risk for pancreatic cancer (81.1 vs. 48.4 per 100,000 person-years) [JAMA 2015 July 21;314(3):265-277]

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

What should I avoid while taking Actoplus Met?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can lower your blood sugar and may increase your risk of lactic acidosis.

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to metformin / pioglitazone: oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

Cardiovascular

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Edema

Pioglitazone:
Very common (10% or more): Edema (26.7%)
Common (1% to 10%): Cardiac failure, chest pain[Ref]

Thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone can cause dose-related fluid retention which can cause or exacerbate congestive heart failure in some patients. Combination with insulin and use in patients with NYHA Class I and II congestive heart failure may increase risk.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Very common (10% or more): Abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Flatulence

Metformin:
Very common (10% or more): Abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting[Ref]

Gastrointestinal events occur most frequently during initiation of therapy and resolve spontaneously in most cases.[Ref]

Hematologic

Metformin-pioglitazone
Common (1% to 10%): Anemia
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Vitamin B12 absorption decreased, lactic acidosis

Metformin:
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Vitamin B12 absorption decreased, lactic acidosis[Ref]

Metabolic

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Weight increased

Pioglitazone:
Very common (10% or more): Hypoglycemia (27.3%)
Common (1% to 10%): Weight gain[Ref]

Mean weight increase in patients receiving pioglitazone monotherapy for 1 year was 2 to 3 kg. In combination with metformin, mean weight increase over 1 year was 1.5 kg. The mechanism of weight gain is unclear, but probably involves a combination of fluid retention and fat accumulation.[Ref]

Respiratory

Metformin-pioglitazone
Common (1% to 10%): Upper respiratory infection
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Sinusitis

Pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Sinusitis[Ref]

Nervous system

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Hypoesthesia, headache, taste disturbance
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Insomnia

Metformin:
Common (1% to 10%): Taste disturbance

Pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Hypoesthesia, headache[Ref]

Ocular

Visual disturbances have been reported early in treatment and may be related to changes in blood glucose due to temporary alteration in the turgidity and refractive index of the lens. Macular edema has been reported postmarketing in patients taking pioglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, although some were diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination. Most patients had peripheral edema at time of diagnosis. Some patients improved with drug discontinuation.[Ref]

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Visual disturbances
Postmarketing reports: Macular edema

Pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Visual disturbances
Frequency not reported: Macular edema[Ref]

Dermatologic

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Erythema, pruritus, urticaria

Metformin:
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Erythema, pruritus, urticaria[Ref]

Endocrine

Common (1% to 10%): Erectile dysfunction[Ref]

General

The most commonly reported adverse events included upper respiratory tract infection, edema, diarrhea, headache, and weight gain.[Ref]

Hepatic

There have been postmarketing reports of hepatic failure, including fatalities, in patients taking pioglitazone. The reports contain insufficient information to establish causality.[Ref]

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Frequency not reported: Hepatitis, alanine aminotransferase increased, abnormal liver function tests

Metformin:
Frequency not reported: Hepatitis, abnormal liver function tests

Pioglitazone:
Frequency not reported: Alanine aminotransferase increased
Postmarketing reports: Hepatic failure[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

In pooled analysis of bone fractures in 8100 patients receiving pioglitazone and 7400 receiving comparator treatment; a higher rate of fractures was observed in women receiving pioglitazone (2.6% versus 1.7%). Some epidemiologic studies have suggested a similarly increased risk of fracture in men.[Ref]

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Bone fracture, arthralgia

Pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Bone fracture, myalgia, extremity pain, back pain
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Serum creatine phosphokinase elevations[Ref]

Oncologic

The US FDA has released results of its review of pioglitazone and bladder cancer and concluded that the data suggests use of this drug may be linked to an increase risk of bladder cancer. A 10-year prospective cohort study in diabetic patients performed by the manufacturer (n=158,918 never users; n=34,181 ever users) identified 1075 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer in never users and 186 cases in ever users. The fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) showed pioglitazone use was not associated with an increased risk (HR 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.26). And while a modest trend towards higher risk with increasing duration was observed, this trend was not statistically significant. Compared to the interim 5-year results, the 10-year results found weaker associations that were not statistically significant. However, there are studies that have shown a statistically significant association between exposure to this drug and bladder cancer and an association between cumulative dose or cumulative duration of exposure and bladder cancer. Overall, this drug may be associated with an increase in the risk of urinary bladder tumors, however there is insufficient data to determine whether this drug is a tumor promoter for urinary bladder tumors.[Ref]

Metformin-pioglitazone
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Bladder cancer

Pioglitazone:
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Bladder cancer[Ref]

Renal

Common (1% to 10%): Hematuria[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Metformin-pioglitazone:
Postmarketing reports: Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions (anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria)

Pioglitazone:
Postmarketing reports: Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions (anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria)[Ref]

Some side effects of ActoPlus Met may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.

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