Adrenalin Injection

Name: Adrenalin Injection

Precautions While Using Adrenalin

Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction and requires immediate medical attention. Check with your doctor right away, or go to an emergency room as soon as possible, even if you feel better after using this medicine.

Tell your doctor if you develop symptoms of an infection (such as redness that does not go away, swelling, warmth, or tenderness) at the injection site.

This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you notice a change in the results of your blood or urine sugar tests or if you have any questions, check with your doctor.

Do not inject this medicine into your buttocks. Epinephrine may not work as well and may cause gas gangrene. Check with your doctor or go to the hospital emergency room right away to get additional treatment.

Do not inject this medicine into your hands or feet. There is already less blood flow to the hands and feet, and epinephrine could make that worse and cause damage to these tissues. If you accidentally inject epinephrine into your hands or feet, check with your doctor or go to the hospital emergency room right away.

This medicine may worsen the condition of patients with heart disease or heart rhythm problems. Check with your doctor right away if you have chest pain or tightness, decreased urine output, dilated neck veins, extreme fatigue, irregular heartbeat, swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs, troubled breathing, or weight gain. You might also feel dizzy or faint, or you might have a fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeat.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Adrenalin Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Incidence not known
  • Abnormal or decreased touch sensation
  • anxiety
  • arm, back, or jaw pain
  • bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
  • blurred vision
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • chest tightness or heaviness
  • cold, pale, or bluish color of the skin of the fingers or toes
  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • fast, slow, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
  • fear or nervousness
  • headache
  • nausea or vomiting
  • numbness, tingling, or pain in the fingers
  • paleness of the skin
  • pounding in the ears
  • restlessness
  • shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
  • stroke
  • sweating
  • trembling or shaking of the hands or feet
  • troubled breathing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose
  • Agitation
  • coldness of the skin
  • coma
  • confusion
  • decreased awareness or responsiveness
  • decreased urine output
  • depression
  • drowsiness
  • hostility
  • irritability
  • lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
  • muscle twitching
  • rapid weight gain
  • rapid, deep breathing
  • seizures
  • severe sleepiness
  • stomach cramps
  • swelling of the face, ankles, or hands
  • unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Warnings and Precautions

  Incorrect Locations of Injection

Injection into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh (vastus lateralis muscle) is the most appropriate location for administration because of its location, size, and available blood flow. Injection into (or near) smaller muscles, such as in the deltoid, is not recommended due to possible differences in absorption associated with this use.

Do not administer repeated injections of epinephrine at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.

Do not inject into buttock. Injection into the buttock may not provide effective treatment of anaphylaxis and has been associated with the development of Clostridial infections (gas gangrene). Cleansing with alcohol does not kill bacterial spores, and therefore, does not lower this risk.

Do not inject into digits, hands, or feet. Epinephrine is a strong vasoconstrictor. Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area and has been associated with tissue necrosis.

Serious Infections at the Injection Site

Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported at the injection site following epinephrine injection for anaphylaxis. Clostridium spores can be present on the skin and introduced into the deep tissue with subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. While cleansing with alcohol may reduce presence of bacteria on the skin, alcohol cleansing does not kill Clostridium spores. To decrease the risk of Clostridium infection, do not inject Adrenalin® into the buttock [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Advise patients to seek medical care if they develop signs or symptoms of infection, such as persistent redness, warmth, swelling, or tenderness, at the epinephrine injection site.

  Disease Interactions

Some patients may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after systemic epinephrine administration. Despite these concerns, the presence of these conditions is not a contraindication to epinephrine administration in an acute, life-threatening situation.

Patients with Heart Disease

Epinephrine should be administered with caution in patients who have heart disease, including patients with cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery or organic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or hypertension. In such patients, or in patients who are on drugs that may sensitize the heart to arrhythmias, epinephrine may precipitate or aggravate angina pectoris as well as produce ventricular arrhythmias [see Drug Interactions (7) and Adverse Reactions (6)].

Other Patients and Diseases

Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with hyperthyroidism, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, pheochromocytoma, elderly individuals, and pregnant women. Patients with Parkinson's disease may experience psychomotor agitation or notice a temporary worsening of symptoms. Diabetic patients may experience transient increases in blood sugar.

  Allergic Reactions Associated with Sulfite

Adrenalin® contains sodium bisulfite which may cause mild to severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis or asthmatic episodes in susceptible individuals. However, the presence of bisulfite in this product should not preclude its use for the treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations even if the patient is sulfite-sensitive, as the alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory.

Overdosage

Overdosage of epinephrine may produce extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may result in cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients. Overdosage may also result in pulmonary edema because of peripheral vascular constriction together with cardiac stimulation. Treatment consists of a rapidly acting α-adrenergic blocking drug and respiratory support.

Epinephrine is rapidly inactivated in the body and treatment following overdose with epinephrine is primarily supportive. If necessary, pressor effects may be counteracted by rapidly acting vasodilators or α-adrenergic blocking drugs. If prolonged hypotension follows such measures, it may be necessary to administer another pressor drug.

Epinephrine overdosage can also cause transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia and these may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug such as propranolol.

Overdosage sometimes results in extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis due to elevated blood lactic acid levels, and kidney failure. Suitable corrective measures must be taken in such situations.

Myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathy have been noted in the literature following overdose of epinephrine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long- term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of epinephrine have not been conducted.

Epinephrine and other catecholamines have been shown to have mutagenic potential in vitro. Epinephrine was positive in the Salmonella bacterial reverse mutation assay, positive in the mouse lymphoma assay, and negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay. Epinephrine is an oxidative mutagen based on the E. coli WP2 Mutoxitest bacterial reverse mutation assay. This should not prevent the use of epinephrine under the conditions noted under Indications and Usage (1).

The potential for epinephrine to impair reproductive performance has not been evaluated, but epinephrine has been shown to decrease implantation in female rabbits dosed subcutaneously with 1.2 mg/kg/day (15-fold the highest human intramuscular or subcutaneous daily dose) during gestation days 3 to 9.

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