Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

Name: Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

If OVERDOSE is suspected

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Index Terms

  • Pentamidine Diisetionate
  • Pentamidine Isethionate
  • Pentamidine Isetionate

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antifungal Agent
  • Antiprotozoal

Dosing Hepatic Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied). Use with caution.

Adverse Reactions


Central nervous system: Fatigue (66%), dizziness (45%)

Gastrointestinal: Decreased appetite (50%)

Infection: Infection (15%)

Respiratory: Cough (1% to 63%), dyspnea (48%), wheezing (32%), bronchospasm (≤15%)

Miscellaneous: Fever (51%)

1% to 5%:

Cardiovascular: Chest pain

Central nervous system: Headache

Dermatologic: Night sweats

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, dysgeusia, nausea, oral candidiasis

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia

Infection: Herpes virus infection, herpes zoster, influenza

Respiratory: Pharyngitis (≤5%), bronchitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection

Miscellaneous: Night sweats

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abscess (oral), abdominal cramps, andominal pain, acute pancreatitis, acute rhinitis, ageusia, amnesia, anaphylaxis, anxiety, arthralgia, asthma, bacterial pneumonia, blepharitis, blurred vision, body odor, bronchitis, cerebrovascular accident, chest congestion, chest tightness, colitis, confusion, conjunctivitis, constipation, contact lens intolerance, cyanosis, cytomegalovirus disease (including colitis and retinitis), cytopenia, depression, dermatitis, desquamation, diabetes mellitus, disuption of body temperature regulation, drowsiness, dry hair, dyspepsia, dyspnea, emotional lability, encephalitis (viral), eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonitis, erythema, esophageal candidiasis, esophagitis, eye pain, facial edema, flank pain, gag reflex, gastritis, gastric ulcer, gingivitis, gout, hallucination, hematochezia, hemianopia, hemoptysis, hepatic insufficiency, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, herpes virus infection (pharyngeal), hiatal hernia, histoplasmosis, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypersensitivity reaction, hypertension, hyperventilation, hypocalcemia, hypoesthesia, hypoglycemia, hypotension, hypothermia, hypoxia, increased blood urea nitrogen, increased bronchial secretions, increased serum creatinine, infection (mycoplasma), insomnia, interstitial pneumonitis, Kaposi's sarcoma, laryngitis, laryngospasm, lethargy, lower extremity edema, melena, meningitis (cryptococcal infection), myalgia, nasal congestion, nephritis, nervousness, neuralgia, neuropathy, neutropenia, oral herpes, oral mucosa ulcer, otitis, palpitations, pancreatitis, pancytopenia, paranoia, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, pleurisy, pneumothorax, pruritus, pulmonary disease, rales, renal failure, renal insufficiency, renal pain, rhinitis, seizure, sepsis (central venous line-related), serious infection (extrapulmonary pneumocystosis), SIADH, sialorrhea, skin rash, splenomegaly, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ST segment changes on ECG, syncope, tachycardia, tachypnea, thrombocytopenia, tonsillitis, torsades de pointes, tremor, tuberculosis, unsteady gait, urinary incontinence, urticaria, vasodilation, vasculitis, ventricular tachycardia, vertigo, vomiting, xeroderma, xerostomia

Pregnancy Risk Factor C Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies were not conducted by the manufacturer. Pentamidine crosses the human placenta (Fortunato 1989). Information related to fetal outcomes following maternal use of pentamidine is limited. If administered via the aerosolized route, maternal serum concentrations are lower, minimizing the exposure to the fetus (Gates 1993; Nanda 1992; Sperling 1992). Concern regarding occupational exposure and theoretical risk to pregnant health care workers has been discussed in the literature. Pregnant health care workers should avoid aerosolized exposure if possible (Conover 1988; Ito 1994; Smaldone 1991). Aerosolized pentamidine may be used as an alternative agent for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in pregnant HIV-infected women who either cannot tolerate the preferred therapy or who wish to avoid it during the first trimester of pregnancy (HHS [OI; adult] 2015).